Epiahrensburgian. osadnictwo paleolityczne w początkach holocenu na stanowisku w Bolkowie na pomorzu zachodnim
The epiahrensburgian. palaeolithic settlement at the beginnings of holocene at the site in Bolków in western Pomerania
DOI : 10.23858/PA 66.2018.001
Multidisciplinary excavation research carried out in recent years at the site in Bolków in Western Pomerania have brought many important and interesting results. They include materials, excavated in 2010-2011 and 2015, related to the poorly-recognized problem of Palaeolithic settlements in the Plain at the beginning of the Holocene. The paper is the first presentation of the results and an attempt to discuss them in the broader European context. The settlement cluster defined as Bolków PF/2011 is dated using the C14 radiocarbon analysis to a period of about 9900-9600 BP and represents the so-called Epiahrensburgian.
KEY WORDS : Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Preboreal, Ahrensburgian, Flixtonian, Bolków, Poland
*Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, ul. Kuśnierska 12/12A, 70-536 Szczecin
e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2224-5917
Beata Miazga*, Marta Mozgała-Swacha**
Wyroby miedziane kultury jordanowskiej ze stan. 10/11/12 w Domasławiu, gm. Kobierzyce, w świetle badań metaloznawczych
Copper artefacts of the Jordanów culture from the Site No. 10/11/12 in Domasław, Kobierzyce commune, in the light of metallographic research
DOI : 10.23858/PA66.2018.002
A rich set artefacts made of copper comes from the cemetery of the Jordanów culture discovered at the site No. 10/11/12 in Domasław, Kobierzyce commune. This article presents the results of metallographic research of selected artefacts, which were the grave goods from two male graves No. 12862 and No. 13131. All the analyzed artefacts were made of a raw material containing very large amounts of copper and trace amounts of other elements. The observed differences in the content of arsenic, antimony and bismuth may indicate the use of various sources of raw material or can be related to the copper production process.
KEY WORDS : The Jordanów culture, copper, ED -XRF
*Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, ul. Szewska 48, 50-139 Wrocław
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3714-1889
**ul. Szewska 48, 50-139 Wrocław, e-mail: email@example.com
Przemysław Muzolf*, Mariusz Ziółkowski**
Nowy skarb trzcinieckiego kręgu kulturowego z Brzegu, stan. 3, gm. Rzeczyca, pow. Tomaszów Mazowiecki, woj. łódzkie
The new hoard of the Trzciniec cultural circle from Brzeg, Site 3, Rzeczyca commune, Tomaszów Mazowiecki district, Łódź Province
DOI : 10.23858/PA 66.2018.003
The paper presents a newly discovered hoard of bronze ornaments, which was found in November 2014 in Brzeg, Rzeczyca commune, Tomaszów Mazowiecki district (Fig. 1). After the initial analysis of the artefacts included in the deposit, it was found that there were 4 oval bronze plates with eyelet, decorated with two rows of ambient points embossed from the bottom, 35 pipe-shaped salta leone coils with a total length of 2,941 m and fragments of a pottery vessel in which the bronze ornaments were placed. The pot belongs to the G123 variant (Górski 2007), with an underlined shoulder and a neck folded outwards, with a slightly thickened rounded/truncated edge, the bottom is not separated (Fig. 2: 1). Spectrometric analysis has shown that all artefacts belong to high-tin bronzes (Table 1). After conducting a formal analysis, mainly of the metal artefacts included in the hoard, and to a lesser extent taking into account the discovered vessel, the time when the hoard from Brzeg was deposited, should be located in the BrD-HA1 phases, which corresponds to the range of 1350-1150 BC in absolute dating.
KEY WORDS: the Bronze Age, hoard, the Trzciniec culture, Central Poland, horse harness
*Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytet Rzeszowski ul. Moniuszki 10, 35-016 Rzeszów
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0029-3141
Joanna Słomska*, Łukasz Antosik**
W jakim st roju na swój pogrzeb, czyli próba interpretacji funkcji tekstyliów archeologicznych odkrywanych w grobach z wczesnej epoki żelaza z terenu Polski
What to wear to your funeral or an attempt to interpret the function of archaeological textiles discovered in graves from the early Iron Age in Poland
The main aim of the paper is to present the cognitive possibilities given by textiles found in graves from the early Iron Age. Apart from information on techniques used in prehistoric weaving, they also allow, unfortunately only in certain cases, to determine their original function. Textile materials discovered up to now at cemeteries from Poland have been most likely the remains of shrouds, pouches or clothes. These remains, in combination with numerous textile materials from Europe, are an important source of information about the communities living in Poland in the early Iron Age. Undoubtedly, garments were one of the determinants of cultural affiliation in prehistory. It consisted of metal jewellery, commonly discovered during excavations, but also definitely less frequent finds of clothing remains.
KEY WORDS: archaeological textiles, function, grave goods, the early Iron Age, funeral rite
*Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ul. Tylna 1, 90-364 Łódź, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1920-4233
**Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ul. Tylna 1 90-364 Łódź, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4781-0476
Motiv und Symbol als Ausdrucksmittel der Bildsprache in der eisenzeitlichen Kunst
The main object of this article is the codification of varieties of the problem of depictions by motifs, but also by symbols or ciphers: The first motif to mention is the arrival to the feast by horses and wagons or the processions with animals, of warriors or participants. Secondly, the so-called Epulum is to be named, celebrating, wining and dining, offering food and drink to participants and lovers. As part of the festival, musicians are playing the lyra and blowing the syrinx too, also dancers and a singing man can be seen. Finally, the contests, so-called Agones – „gymnic“ as fist fighting, so-called „Faustkampf“, „hippic“ as horse- and chariot racing, and „music“ as acting perfomance of musicians – are named. But in order to represent the festivities in full complexity on one frieze, the artist has to use ciphers as well.
KEY WORDS: Situla Art, Central Europa, Representations of festivities and rituals, Decoding of motifs and symbols, Iron Age
* A-1170 Wien, Alszeile 118/10/4, Österreich/Austria, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0276-8892
Bogusław Gediga*, Zdzisław Hensel**, Anna Józefowska***
Zespół mieczy z ciałopalnego cmentarzyska ludności „kultury łużyckiej w Domasławiu, pow. Wrocław
The set of swords from the cremation cemetery of the „Lusatian culture" in Domasław, Wrocław District
DOI : 10.23858/PA 66.2018.006
In connection with the planned construction of the Wrocław bypass in the years 2006-2008, the Rescue Archaeological Excavation Team of the Wrocław Branch of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, carried out rescue excavations at the Site 10/11/12 in Domasław. The most sensational results were obtained during the excavations of the cemetery of the population of the Lusatian culture, above all from the early phase of the Iron Age, the period when the image of the material culture of this community changed fundamentally. This is showed by the construction and grave goods of nearly 300 Hallstatt chamber graves, containing more than 50 luxury graphite-treated and painted pottery vessels, decorations, toiletry sets, tools, bronze vessels and weapons. At the cemetery, a fragment of a bronze sword’s blade was discovered in a grave dated to the IV/V period of the Bronze Age and seven iron and one bronze sword in the Hallstatt graves, undoubtedly imports from the north-Atlantic manufacturing centre. Metallurgical analyses of bronze artefacts may indicate the Alpine origin of the raw material, they also testify to the small qualities of iron swords for the purposes for which they were intended. In one case, the meteorite origin of the raw material was proved. The fact that swords were put to the graves together with the dead, certainly distinguished the individuals and showed their social position. In the light of many premises obtained during the excavations at the cemetery in Domasław, the sources are a confirmation of contacts, already mentioned in the literature, with the Mediterranean civilization, mainly through the Hallstatt cultures.
KEY WORDS : swords, Domasław, cemetery, the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age, metallurgical research
*Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2334-7202
**Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa
e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8968-7475
***e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9377-7166
Lidia Kamyszek*, Luiza Kępa**, Tomasz Purowski***, Barbara Wagner**, Leszek Żygadło*
Znaleziska związane z osadnictwem ludności kultury lateńskiej z Raciborza, stanowisko 426, woj. śląskie
Findings related to the settlement of the La Tène culture from Racibórz, Site 426, the Silesian Province
DOI : 10.23858/PA66.2018.007
At the Site 426 in Racibórz, relics of the Lusatian and the La Tène settlement were discovered, as well as relics of settlements of the Przeworsk culture from the Roman period and the early Middle Ages. The most interesting findings include remains of the La Tène culture. These are few fragments of pottery vessels and a fragment of a glass bracelet. The paper focuses primarily on the typological, chronological and technological analyses of the glass artefact. The bracelet from Racibórz was made of translucent blue glass and decorated with yellow and white opaque glass. The formal features allow it to be classified to the Row 19 according to the classification by R. Gebhard and to the Group 11b according to the typology by Th.E. Haevernick. The chemical composition of all three glasses was tested using the LA -IC P-MS method. Based on the content of K2O and MgO, the discussed materials can be classified as low magnesium glasses (LM G). Thanks to the discovery of the fragment of the glass bracelet, the settlement episode of the La Tène culture can be dated to LT C1b, possibly to LT C2.
KEY WORDS : Racibórz, the La Tène culture, glass bracelet, tests on the chemical composition of glass
*Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Zespół Archeologicznych Badań Ratowniczych przy Ośrodku Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0273-6842, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9441-6610
** Uniwersytet Warszawski, Wydział Chemii, Pracownia Teoretycznych Podstaw Chemii Analitycznej, ul. L. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5398-6438, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8259-4791
***Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1916-7698
How much do we know about the opening of graves in the cemetery in Czarnówko? Some remarks on the basis of research in 2017
The paper discusses results of research on grave opening in the cemetery of the Wielbark Culture in Czarnówko. It is based on excavation works which were carried out in 2017 and were aimed at preparing a precise documentation of trenches which disturbed burials. Additional support was offered by geomorphologic, anthracological, and anthropological analyses. An interdisciplinary approach offers a chance to provide answers to questions concerning the time and methods of post-funeral interferences at Czarnówko and in other cemeteries of the Wielbark Culture. In the next stage, issues concerning the aim (robbery or ritual) and the cultural identity of originators of grave disturbances can be addressed.
KEY WORDS: Wielbark Culture, Czarnówko, Roman Period, grave opening, robbery, funerary ritual
*Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tylna 1, 90-364 Łódź
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3197-6060
Sławomir Wadyl*, Konstantin Skvorcov**
Nowoodkryta ostroga typu lutomierskiego z półwyspu sambijskiego. Przyczynek do studiów nad kontaktami słowiańsko-bałtyjskimi
The newly discovered spur of the Lutomiersk type from the Sambia Peninsula. A contribution to research on the Slavic-Baltic contacts
DOI : 10.23858/PA 66.2018.009
The paper presents a new discovery of a spur of the Lutomiersk type from the Sambia Peninsula. This is the second finding of this type from the former Old Prussian area. The authors have brought closer the history of research and previous discoveries of spurs of this kind. Until recently, these artefacts were considered to be saddlebow fittings. Now we know that they are rare ceremonial spurs. In the past, the southern Ural, Scandinavia and the Baltic area were indicated as the area of their origin. In the latest works, there is a conviction that these spurs should be connected with Western Slavs, especially with the early Piast rule. The spur goad presented in the paper confirms the intense cultural contacts of the early Piast state with the West-Baltic culture.
KEY WORDS : the early Middle Ages, spurs of the Lutomiersk type, Baltic Prussians, Slavdom
*Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28
00-927 Warszawa, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1609-5222
** Институт Археологии Российской Академии Наук, ул. Дм. Ульянова 19, 117036 Москва, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0861-374
Aleksandra Pankiewicz*, Sylwia Siemianowska**
Problem funkcjonowania wczesnośredniowiecznej pracowni szklarskiej w obrębie niemczańskiego kompleksu osadniczego
The problem of the functioning of an early medieval glass workshop within the Niemcza settlement complex
DOI : 10.23858/PA 66.2018.010
The problem of the existence of early medieval glass workshops in Silesia has been constantly discussed by various researchers for many years. Niemcza – apart from Wrocław, Opole and Obiszów – is one of the centres where such a workshop could be located. The discovery of glass jewellery within this centre argued in favour of that, as well as artefacts associated with glassmaking, referred to as crucibles with congealed glass mass, quartz splinters, icicles with a glazed coating, glass slag, fragments of pottery with glassy surface, and a small fragment of a nozzle. This paper presents the results of recent analyses of chemical composition, both of finished products and findings hypothetically related to the process of glass melting/remelting. The aim of the paper is to verify the hypothesis concerning the existence of an early glass workshop in Niemcza and to determine its character.
KEY WORDS : glass workshops, the early Middle Ages, tests on the chemical composition of glass, strongholds, Niemcza
*Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, ul. Szewska 48, 50-139 Wrocław,
e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1831-6367
**Ośrodek Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza IA iE PAN, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0021-1954
Miejsce w krajobrazie oraz funkcje wczesnośredniowiecznych grodów w dorzeczach środkowej i górnej Obry, Baryczy oraz środkowej Prosny w IX i X w.
A place within the landscape and the functions of early medieval fortified settl ements in the Middle and Upp er Obra, Barycz and Middle Prosna River basins in the 9th and 10th centuries
DOI : 10.23858/PA66.2018.011
In the basins of the Middle and Upper Obra, Barycz and Middle Prosna Rivers, there are numerous fortified settlements which time of construction and activity fell within the so-called tribal period. In the literature on the subject, the view prevails, according to which they were seats of the tribal aristocracy. This paper presents a different approach, which focuses on the social and symbolic context of the presence of these structures in the early medieval landscape. The analysis of the form of the fortified settlements and their location in the settlement structure of the discussed area in the 9th and 10th centuries, was the starting point for the considerations. The considerations also take into account the potential functions of features discovered within the ramparts of the examined fortified settlements. They resulted in the recognition of the fortified settlements as multifunctional central places of tribal communities, and their potential functions were: a place ofholding people's assemblies and religious practices, a treasury, a point of military resistance, and perhaps also a market square and a residence of selected people. The collapse of these fortified settlements can be associated with the consolidation of the Polish state in the times of Bolesław I the Brave and the translocation of the population to the vicinity of large centres of ducal power.
KEY WORDS : early medieval fortified settlements, Slavs, landscape archaeology, medieval archaeology, symbolism, Slavic cosmology
*Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Ośrodek Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8433-6588
Justyna Kolenda*, Włodzimier z Rączkowski**
Anatomia pustki: o archeologicznym rekonesansie lotniczym w północno -wschodniej części Dolne go Śląska Anatomy of emptiness : about archaeological aerial reconnaissan in the nort h-eastern part of Lower Silesia
In this paper, the authors focused on discussing problems related to the notion of "emptiness", the category often functioning in archaeological narratives. Its aim is to try to answer the question: why the application of various methods can lead to results that only partly meet the expectations of researchers? This text treats the "emptiness" only as a metaphor, and in no way refers to the real, past situation. The experience gained during the aerial reconnaissance conducted in the north-eastern part of Lower Silesia was the starting point. The analysis of its results shows how complex conditions affect the effectiveness of an applied method. The text discusses various circumstances influancing the obtained results. At the same time, it was shown that the presence of the "settlements' emptiness" in a given area is not a confirmation of he lack of settlements in the past (in prehistory or early Middle Ages), but to a significant extent – it is the effect of information resource resulting from the used methods.
KEY WORDS: north-eastern Lower Silesia, settlements' emptiness, the Barycz River valley, aerial reconnaissance
*Ośrodek Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza IAiE PAN, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
**Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytetu Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, ul. Umultowska 89D, 61-614 Poznań, e-mail: email@example.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3432-1745