2018.02.20 - Nowości wydawnicze Ośrodka Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza IAiE PAN

Przegląd Archeologiczny, Tom 65 (2017)




Marta Młynarska-Kaletynowa*


Założenia i pytania badawcze programu badań milenijnych

Objectives and research questions of the millennial studies

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.001


Due to the approaching 1000th anniversary of the Polish State, at the end of 1948 the Department for Studies on the Origins of the Polish State as part of the General Directorate of Museums and Cultural Heritage was established at the Ministry of Culture and Art. Prof. Aleksander Gieysztor, a historian and medievalist from the University of Warsaw, became the president of the institution, while vice-presidents were K. Majewski, a classical archaeology professor, and archaeologist, associate professor Z. Rajewski. The office for the Studies on the Origins of the Polish State that consisted of a few employees was directed by Ph.D. R. Kiersnowski. The Department was involved in excavations of the most significant strongholds of the Piast State and it conducted interdisciplinary source studies in 1949-1953.


KEY WORDS: Department for Studies on the Origins of the Polish State, millennial studies


*Ośrodek Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza

Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN; ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław



Adrianna Szczerba*


Powołanie Kierownictwa Badań nad Początkami Państwa Polskiego

Establishing the Department for Studies on the Origins of the Polish State

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.002


The Department for Studies on the Origins of the Polish State was established in 1949 in order to conduct extensive interdisciplinary research on the origins and functioning of the State of the First Piasts. The research project started a year earlier due to the necessity to celebrate a thousand years of the Polish State and the 1000th anniversary of the Baptism of Poland. The process of “preparing the great anniversary”, which was interpreted by the Catholic Church and the State in a different way and whose scientific aims were strongly influenced by politics, was undoubtedly the biggest initiative in the history of the Polish humanities research after World War II . These millennial studies have improved the state of our knowledge on the origins of the Polish statehood and the importance of Poland on the map of early medieval Europe. They also played an important social and political role in developing national consciousness of the Polish society after changing the borders in 1945.


KEY WORDS : history of archaeology, studies on the origins of the Polish State


*Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Łódzki, ul. G. Narutowicza 65, 90-131 Łódź



Karin Reichenbach*


The Research Program on the Beginnings of the Polish State between Polish Western Thought and Historical Materialism : Structural Developments and Political Reorientation

DOI: 10.23858/PA65.2017.003


Focussing on the development of organizational infrastructures, financial constitutions as well as staffing policies of the research program on the beginnings of the Polish state and discussing them in relation to the political framework of post-war Poland, this paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the general preconditions and requirements. Presenting information from archival documents and a close reading of the steps and forms archaeological contributions to the millennial theme have taken, it tries to retrace the development of its thematic and conceptual orientation. This development is presented here as reorientation from a starting point within the realm of the Poznań intellectual centre and thus the Polish Western Thought towards a Warsovian centralization and the implementation of Marxist methodology and, officially at least, Stalinist ideology.


KEY WORDS: research on the beginnings of the Polish state, KBnPPP, post-war Poland, politics of research funding and staffing, Polish Western Thought, Stalinism, Marxist archaeology


*Leibniz-Institute for the History and Culture of Eastern Europe (GWZO) Specks Hof (Eingang A), Reichsstraße 4-6, D-04109 Leipzig



Bogusław Gediga*


Doświadczenia metodyczne i metodologiczne badań milenijnych oraz ich rola społeczna

Methodical and methodological advances of the millennial studies and their social role

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.004


The millennial studies and their role in the development of research methods and methodology. Livelier discussion on the issues. Extending the knowledge on early medieval culture. The importance for shaping social identity. The millennial excavations in Opole, Silesia.


KEY WORDS : millennial studies, Silesia – Opole, methods and methodology, social role


*Ośrodek Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza,

Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław



Arkadiusz Marciniak*, Stanisław Tabaczyński**


Geneza i rozwój nierówności społecznych w paradygmatach badawczych archeologii. Zarys problematyki

The emergence and development of social inequality in archaeological research paradigms. An outline

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.005


The article brings about an analysis of major conceptualizations of processes leading to the emergence and development of social complexity and inequality, which have been formulated within major paradigms of contemporary archaeology. The most significant contribution to these issues was offered by archaeologies inspired by functionalism and neoevolutionism. These attempts corresponded with an attempt to turn archaeology into a nomothetic discipline. Of different character were works inspired by Marxism, Neomarxism, and poststructuralism. They offered a valuable contribution to the conceptualization of the means of achieving social goals and performing social roles by different actors.

KEY WORDS : evolutionism, Marxism, Neomarxism, social complexity, hierarchy, chiefdom, early state


*Instytut Archeologii UAM, Collegium Historicum, ul. Umultowska 89D, 61-614 Poznań

**Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa



Stanisław Suchodolski*, Mateusz Bogucki**


Inwentaryzacja wczesnośredniowiecznych znalezisk pieniądza kruszcowego w Polsce

Cataloging the Early Medieval Silver Hoards and Coins from Poland

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.006


Authors presents the history of the cataloging the Early Medieval Silver Hoards (c. 550-1150) and Coins from Poland, starting with the first works of Joachim Lelewel from the first half of the 19th century, through the series Polskie Skarby Wczesnośredniowieczne of the mid-twentieth century, to the newest series Frühmittelalterliche Münzfunde aus Polen. For to the newest series, the principles and rules are outlined regarding to the chronological and territorial frames. The rules for the finds and coin description are given. The basic data on the number of registered finds, their types and distribution are also provided.


KEY WORDS : Early Middle Ages, Poland, Hoards, Coins, Catalogue


* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa

** Ośrodek Archeologii Średniowiecza Krajów Nadbałtyckich Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN,

ul. Kuśnierska 12/12a, 70-536 Szczecin





Badania nad początkami szklarstwa i wyrobami szklanymi na ziemiach polskich: problemy i metody badań. Zarys

Studies on the origins of glassmaking and glassware in Poland: an outline of problems and research methods

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.007


The discovery of relics initially interpreted as a glasswork from the 11th century that occurred in Kruszwica in 1953 was followed by increased interest in glassware found at excavations in Poland. Even though the later laboratory analyses from 1964 revealed that the discovered furnace was not directly connected with glassmaking, studies on production of glass became more frequent. They were conducted on two levels: 1. by institutions related to glass industry, 2. by archaeologists and historians in cooperation with chemists, physicians and technologists. The large amount of source material that consisted of glass-related finds obtained during the millennial excavations as well as establishing a research team comprised of representatives of different disciplines allowed for interdisciplinary studies on glassware and relics of glassmaking. They led to addressing theoretical foundations and methods of research on this category of finds. Numerous studies, including books and papers, were also published and a new scientific discipline, history of glass, was born in Poland.


KEY WORDS : Poland, Early Middle Ages, interdisciplinary studies on the finds connected with glassmakin


* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa



Tadeusz Baranowski*


Dwie rocznice w Kaliszu (1960-1966): Osiemnaście Wieków Kalisza i Tysiąclecie Polski

Two anniversaries in Kalisz (1960-1966): Eighteen Centuries of Kalisz and Millennium of Poland

DOI: 10.23858/PA65.2017.008


The Archaeological Laboratory of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kalisz is over 60 years old and participated in undertakings connected with two jubilees – Millennium of the Baptism of Poland or Millennium of the Polish State and the Eighteen Centuries of Kalisz. In this time, the head of Lab in Kalisz was archaeologist Krzysztof Dąbrowski. The excavations at the archaeological site of the Roman period in Piwonice near Kalisz was related to the role of archaeological sources in the identification of Kalisz as Ptolemy’s Kalisia. The greatest discoveries of the fifties and sixties of the 20th century in Kalisz concerned the research of Millennium project in the area of Zawodzie-Stronghold.

KEY WORDS: Millennium program, Eighteen Centuries of Kalisz, excavations at Kalisz, Krzysztof Dąbrowski


* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa



Jerzy Maik*


Początki Kościoła w Łęczycy. Badania opactwa i kolegiaty w Tumie pod Łęczycą

The beginnings of the Catholic Church in Łęczyca. Excavations of the abbey and the collegiate church in Tum

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.009


The paper summarises excavations and conservation works at the 12th-century collegiate church of St. Mary and St. Alexius in Tum near Łęczyca and the foundation walls relics uncovered under the church which are identified with St. Mary’s abbey, mentioned in the Gniezno bulla from 1136. The presumably Benedictine abbey could have been built around the year 1000 and was pulled down before erection of the collegiate church, which started around 1141. After several destructions and reconstructions that took place during the 850 years of existence, the church has recently undergone conservation procedures to allow its further functioning.


KEY WORDS: Łęczyca, Tum, collegiate church, abbey, Early Middle Ages


*Ośrodek Badań nad Dawnymi Technologiami, Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, ul. Tylna 1, 90-364 Łódź



Marian Rębkowski*


Badania milenijne na Pomorzu Zachodnim. Przebieg, znaczenie, skutki

Millennial studies in Pomerania. Course, significance, effects

DOI: 10.23858/PA65.2017.010


The course, character and conditions of the excavations conducted in 1948-1966 in Pomerania as part of the program research on the origins of the Polish State were discussed in the paper. Their effects and significance for the development of archaeology in this region of Poland were evaluated.


KEY WORDS: history of archaeology, Pomerania, millennial studies


* Ośrodek Archeologii Średniowiecza Krajów Nadbałtyckich Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN,

ul. Kuśnierska 12/12a, 70-536 Szczecin



Jerzy Kmieciński*


Gdańsk – geneza średniowiecznego miasta i portu. Wyniki badań milenijnych

Gdańsk – the origins of the medieval town and harbour. The results of the millennial studies

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.011


Over twenty years after the millennial studies had begun the researchers recognised and scientifically reconstructed a vast trading emporium and administration centre with a ducal residence, trading districts, market places, craftsmen’s and merchants’ quarters, numerous workshops, a large harbour with a closed aquatorium fitted with solid embankments where large seagoing vessels berthed. The great significance of Gdańsk as a place of lively trade is proved by numerous and sometimes precious imports whose impressive territorial coverage reaches Bergen in Norway as well as Swedish Birka

and Sigtuna in the North, Spain in the West, and Kiev, Byzantium and Baghdad in the East.


KEY WORDS : Gdańsk, harbour, embankment, urbanisation, fishing, trade


* Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, ul. G. Narutowicza 65, 90-131 Łódź



Michał Kara*


Polish archaeology in the ‘Millennium’ research on the early polish state, with particular emphasis on the Poznań Research Centre. Major research paradigms

DOI: 10.23858/PA65.2017.012


This paper outlines major research paradigms in Polish archaeology underpinning the so-called millennium research project conducted between 1948/1949 and 1970. The main focus of this study is the Poznań research centre. The millennium project was an answer to the 1000th anniversary of the Polish State and the Baptism of Mieszko I, the first historical ruler of Poland, celebrated between 1965 and 1966. The research paradigms of the then archaeology were noticeably determined by research issues explored by the historiography of the Middle Ages. First independent archaeological studies on

the early Piast state (regnum) were conducted only in the late twentieth century. Their results were based on archaeological evidence from the so-called millennium research in Wielkopolska. During carefully planned and methodically conducted excavations conducted by archaeologists from the Poznań centre, archaeological sources were impeccably recovered, documented and very well preserved along with the field data and documentation.


KEY WORDS: the 1000th anniversary of the baptism and the formation of the Polish state, medieval archaeology, historiography of the Middle Ages, strongholds, Poznań cathedral, Wielkopolska (Great Poland), Gniezno, Poznań, Kruszwica, Aleksander Gieysztor, Witold Hensel, Krystyna Józefowiczówna (Józefowicz), Kazimierz Tymieniecki


* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Ośrodek Studiów Pradziejowych i Średniowiecznych, (Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Centre for Prehistoric and Medieval Studies), ul. Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań



Bartłomiej Szymon Szmoniewski*, Piotr Włodarczak*


Badania wielkich grodów zachodniomałopolskich przeprowadzone przez małopolskich archeologów Instytutu Historii Kultury Materialnej PAN: próba podsumowania oraz obecne perspektywy

Investigations of the Great Hillforts from the western Lesser Poland conducted by archaeologists from the Institut e of the History of Material Cu ltu re PAS : an att empt to summarize and current perspectives

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.013


In this paper, the authors present and discuss three early medieval hillforts: Stradów, Demblin and Szczaworyż, excavated by the former Zakład Archeologii Małopolski IHKM in the 1950’s and 1960’s in Lesser Poland. This research was conducted in order to identify and interpret their role in the formation of the Polish state, but was not a part of the Polish Millennium Project. Demblin and Stradów, as well as Szczaworyż, are often considered so-called “Great Hillforts” or “Vistulan Hillforts”, after the tribe of the same name. Stradów is the most representative and according to new data,

it is one of Poland’s greatest fortified sites, covering approximately 50 ha. This paper briefly presents the history of the archaeological research, the main publications of the past and present, and future research directions on this topic. The authors conclude that the Great Hillforts from the western part of the Małopolska Upland are very important for understanding the complicated historical situation of Early Medieval Lesser Poland. Finally, a new archaeological research program is also discussed.


KEY WORDS : Early Middle Ages, Great Hillforts, Lesser Poland, state of research


* Ośrodek Archeologii Gór i Wyżyn, Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, ul. Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków



Andrzej Buko*


Badania milenijne Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii PAN w Sandomierzu i na ziemi sandomierskiej

Millennial studies carried out by the Ins titute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Sandomierz and the Sandomierz region

DOI: 10.23858/PA65.2017.014


On the initiative of the Department for Studies on the Origins of the Polish State established in 1949 extensive archaeological excavations were undertaken throughout the country. Sandomierz with the whole its region was an important spot on the map of these research. Both historical places of worship and early urban centres dating back to the beginnings of the Polish State are located in the area. In the case of Sandomierz there are also written sources that prove the centre’s exceptional significance at the dawn of the State of the First Piasts. It is not surprising that the expectations of both historians

and archaeologists towards excavations conducted in the town area and the entire region were high from the very beginning. In the paper the most significant results of archaeological research that took place in the Sandomierz region in the years 1958-1968 were discussed.


KEY WORDS: millenium archaeology, Sandomierz region, discoveries, interpretations


* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa


Marcin Wołoszyn*


Zaraz po wojnie: Z historii badań nad pograniczem polsko-ruskim w latach 1945-1956 (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Grodów Czerwieńskich)

Right after the war: on the history of studies on the Polish-early Rus’ borderland conducted in 1945-1956 (with emphasis on so-called Cherven’ Towns)

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.015


The subject of this article is the history of studies on the Polish-early Rus’ borderland, mainly so-called Cherven’ Towns, i.e. the strongholds of Czermno and Gródek in eastern Poland. I focus on the post-war period (until 1956), but in order to present the events of that time in the proper context it is necessary to briefly go back in time to the Second Republic of Poland and the years 1939-1945. The origins of interest in a systematic analysis of the Cherven’ Towns region can be tracked back to Lwów/L’viv in the 1930s. World War II thwarted the plans and goals made at that time. After 1945,

studies on the gords in Czermno and Gródek were restarted and from 1952 excavations on this territory were carried out – officially – as part of Polish-Soviet cooperation. The excavations were abandoned in rather unclear circumstances. The article shows how the dramatic changes in Europe in the mid-20th century influenced the attitudes of scholars, including archaeologists, at that time.


KEY WORDS : archaeology, Middle Ages, Poland, Kiev Rus’, Ukraine, Russia, Soviet Union, Cherven’ Towns, Czermno, Gródek, history of archaeology


*Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, ul. Moniuszki 10, 35-015 Rzeszów



Maciej Trzeciecki*


Płock, Czersk i Radom – badania „millenijne” i prace weryfikacyjne

Płock, Czersk and Radom – the “millennial” studies and verification research

DOI : 10.23858/PA 65.2017.016


Archaeological research in Płock, Radom and Czersk was connected with a project carried out to honour the Millennium of the Polish State. This paper presents the results of the millennial studies as well as recent verification research that allowed to correct the dating of the beginnings of the settlement complexes. It also verified the vision of vast „early urban settlements” adjacent to strongholds that appeared as a result of the millennial studies. Settlement complexes in Płock,

Radom and Czersk can be defined as typical mid-level early Piast centres of power that were developing from the early 11th century and were replaced in 14th century by castles and incorporated towns.

KEY WORDS : Early Middle Ages, the State of the Firsts Piasts, archaeological research, Płock, Czersk, Radom, stronghold, settlement


* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa



Justyna Kolenda*, Agnieszka Seidel -Grzesińska**


Frühmittelalterliche Burgwälle des ehemaligen Kreises Militsch-Trachenberg im Lichte der archivalischen und kartographischen Quellen vom 16. bis zum Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts

Early medieval stronghold relics of the former Milicz-Żmigród district in the light of archival and cartographic sources from the 16th to the early 20th century

DOI: 10.23858/PA65.2017.017


The paper discusses changes in the way early medieval stronghold relics located in the North-East Silesia were perceived during the past four centuries and shows how the interest in these structures were developing from the early modern period until the turn of the 20th century. The aforementioned issues were not studied in a detailed way until now. Written historical records, cartographic sources together with the toponymy as well as the typology of the studied structures that had developed since the 19th century were analysed. Special attention was paid to the stronghold relics in Wrocławice,

Lelików, Góry and Milicz. They make up a part of a bigger settlement complex located within the area of the former Milicz-Żmigród district. The paper goes beyond the previous studies which aimed chiefly at recording archaeological sites (creating a complete catalogue) and focuses on a critical approach towards the issue of evolution in methods of documenting strongholds over time.


KEY WORDS: early medieval stronghold relics, the Valley of Barycz river, cartography, antiquarianism, archival sources, Milicz


*Ośrodek Badań nad Kulturą Późnego Antyku i Wczesnego Średniowiecza, Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, ul. Więzienna 6, 50-118 Wrocław

** Instytut Historii Sztuki Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, ul. Szewska 36, 50-139 Wrocław


Institut für Archäologie und Ethnologie der Polnischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Institut für Archäologie und Ethnologie der Polnischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Zentrum für die Erforschung der Kultur der Spätantike  und des Frühmittelalters
Institut für Archäologie und Ethnologie der Polnischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
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