Typologia form naczyń kultury pucharów lejkowatych z obszaru Dolnego Śląska
Typology of vessels forms of the Funnel Beaker Culture from Lower Silesia
The lack of a unified system of description of vessels types of the Funnel Beaker culture in Lower Silesia means that heterogeneous terminology prevents precise classification of ceramic forms found at sites of the culture. The paper presents a proposition of a classification of vessels types of the Funnel Beaker culture developed on the basis of analyses of artefacts from Lower Silesian sites. It has been constructed in a way that enables its complement in case of new discoveries, not falling within the present scope.
*Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, ul. Szewska 48, 50-139 Wrocław
Piotr Włodarczak*, Tomasz Boroń**, Aldona Kurzawska***, Marta Osypińska***, Anita Szczepanek*, Małgorzata Winiarska-Kabacińska****
Grób kultury ceramiki sznurowej ze stanowiska 10 w Wilczycach, pow. sandomierski
The grave of the Corded Ware culture from the site 10 in Wilczyce, Sandomierz County
The authors of the paper present the results of research, the subject of which was the inhumation burial of the Corded Ware culture from Wilczyce. The site is located on the culmination of the southern slope of a loess hill, rising directly above the valley of the Opatówka River. The grave goods consisted of: an amphora, three cups, two miniature vessels, 41 wolf tooth pendants and disc-shaped shell beads. Radiocarbon dating result on bones from the burial is 3960 ± 30 BP (Poz-80189).
*Ośrodek Archeologii Gór i Wyżyn Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii PAN
ul. Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków
**Ośrodek Interdyscyplinarnych Badań Archeologicznych Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa
***Ośrodek Studiów Pradziejowych i Średniowiecznych Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Laboratorium Bio- i Archeometrii, ul. Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań
****Muzeum Archeologiczne w Poznaniu, ul. Wodna 27, 61-781 Poznań
Stratyfikacja społeczna ludności zachodniopodolskiej grupy kultury wczesnoscytyjskiej
Social Stratification of the Population of the Western-Podolian Group of the Early Scythian Culture
The paper raises the question of the reconstruction of the social structure of the Western-Podolian group of the Early Scythian culture (ESC ), based on materials from burials. As a result of the analysis of the most important elements of funeral rites of the population of this group, as well as based on ancient writers (The Histories by Herodotus), it was established that the size and the complexity of construction of a burial and a mound covering the burial, as well as the diversification of quantity and quality of grave goods, seem to be of the most value for this issue. The classification of 100 burial complexes carried out on the basis of these features, with the use of statistical inference methods (cluster and correspondence analyses), has led to the differentiation of six classes of graves, which can be combined with different social classes. The higher (military leaders and chieftains) and the lower aristocracy, the ordinary population with the distinguishing class of warriors and the poorest population are numbered to these classes. Apart from these classes, connected with the free, fully-fledged population, a group of the partly dependent population with limited rights has been also differentiated.
* Instytut Archeologii UR, ul. Moniuszki 10, 35-015 Rzeszów
Jaroslava Pavelková*, Václav Furmánek**
Demografická analýza kultúr popolnicových polí na Slovensku
Demographic Analysis of the Urnfields Cultures in Slovakia
Based on the anthropological analyses the content of cremation graves from the Urnfield period was established demographic structure of the population. There was calculated life expectancy and age structure. These data were compared with two cultural complexes of Urnfields (Lusatian culture and cultural complex of South-eastern Urnfields) in Slovakia. The values have been shown on transparent each tables and graphs.
* Fakulta sociálnych vied UCM v Trnave, Bučianska ul. 4/A, 917 01 Trnava Slovenská republika
** Archeologický ústav SAV Nitra, Akademická 2, 949 21 Nitra, Slovenská republika
Starość w społeczności kultury wielbarskiej
Senility in Wielbark Culture
The following paper focuses on an issue of a senilis age understood as a cultural construct in the Wielbark Culture. The main point of an article is not only analysis of a sets of artefacts or features of grave pits belonging to individuals in
senilis age, but most of all the possible patterns of senility, which could be fulfilled by the Wielbarkian society. Research on the various age categories from cultural point of view is not easy, especially when it is carried out on the basis of such
a specific data as archaeological sources. However, this type of analysis allows us to look at the „subject”of archaeological research from a completely new perspective.
*Katedra Archeologii Uniwersytet Szczeciński, ul. Krakowska 71-79, 71-017 Szczecin
Wojciech Chudziak*, Marcin Weinkauf*, Ewelina Siemianowska*, Jacek Bojarski*, Barbara Kowalewska*, Paweł Szczepanik*, Joanna Abramów*, Dorota Bienias*, Daniel Makowiecki*
Domniemana karczma z wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu osadniczego w Kałdusie na Pomorzu Nadwiślańskim
The Supposed Inn from Early Medieval Settl ement Complex in Kałdus on Pomerania Vistula
The paper concerns one of the construction discovered within the early medieval, immediately adjacent to a fortified centre, ancillary settlement in Kałdus (historical Chełmno), which has been interpreted as remains of a supposed inn. It includes formal analysis of the construction and of movable objects found within, carried out in comparison with the results of studies over the spatial and functional layout of the settlement. The analysis was carried out in the context of theoretical knowledge on medieval inns, and especially of the content of the so-called Mogilno forgery, where nonum forum cum tabernario in Culmine was mentioned.
*Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, ul. Szosa Bydgoska 44/48, 87-100 Toruń
Stanisław Kukawka*, Jolanta Małecka-Kukawka*
O genezie kultury pucharów lejkowatych i badaniach stanowiska w Dąbkach na Pomorzu Środkowym
On the origins of the Funnel Beaker culture and excavations at the site in Dąbki in Middle Pomerania
The paper contains critical comments on the article by Agnieszka Czekaj-Zastawny, Jacek Kabaciński and Thomas Terberger entitled “The origins of the Funnel Beaker culture in the context of cultural changes in Northern Europe in the fifth millennium BC ”, which appeared in Przegląd Archeologiczny (Archaeological Review), volume 61. The paper stresses the incompatibility between the content and the declaration in the title, as well as ignoring the current archaeological knowledge. At the level of source studies and interpretation, the work contains errors and inaccuracies of theses as regards the results of research conducted at the site in Dąbki in Middle Pomerania. Hypotheses about the continuity of the settlement at this site, the evolution of Mesolithic pottery towards funnel beakers and the postulated chronology of events were brought up for special discussion. With reference to that, logical incorrectness of the assumed processes of the origins and spread of the Funnel Beaker culture has been suggested.
* Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
ul. Szosa Bydgoska 44/48, 87-100 Toruń
Anna B. Kowalska*
Uwagi polemiczne do pracy Marquity Volken „Archaeological Footwear. Development of shoe patterns and styles from Prehistory till the 1600’s”
Polemical comments on “Archaeological Footwear.Development of shoe patterns and styles from Prehistory till the 1600’s” by Mar quita Volken
One of the newest works on shoemaking was written in the Swiss Musée de la Chaussure in Lausanne. The author of the work, Marquita Volken, presented her own original way to organize source materials known mainly from archaeological excavations, but also from iconographic sources and old collections. The system is intended to be used primarily by novice researchers dealing with issues of development of shoemaking in Europe. In essence, the author has achieved her goal – she presented the development of footwear from prehistory to the seventeenth century, therefore this is another attempt to summarize the existing research results. However, the publication by M. Volken, despite the bulk of work involved, especially the careful preparation of the graphic part, contains a number of controversial statements and conclusions. The author attempts to define the styles of footwear, basic pattern templates, as well as the seams and stitches. A discussion on the diversity of footwear’s names and on suggestions as to their unification is a very important part of the work. M. Volken’s suggestions are certainly interesting, but the systematization and periodization model presented by her brings a lot of doubts. In the opinion of the Author, a new method was created, combining styles and pattern templates, reflecting fashion and stylistic and cultural aspects.
* Ośrodek Archeologii Średniowiecza Krajów Nadbałtyckich IAE PAN, ul. Kuśnierska 12/12a, 70-536 Szczecin